Rationale: Despite awareness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment recommendations, uptake is poor. The Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) spans 2010-2016, providing an opportunity to assess integration of 2011 Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment strategies over time in a large observational cohort study. Objectives: To evaluate how COPD treatment aligns with 2011 GOLD strategies and determine factors associated with failure to align with recommendations. Methods: Information on inhaled medication use collected via questionnaire annually for 4 years was compiled into therapeutic classes (long-acting antimuscarinic agent, long-acting b-agonist, inhaled corticosteroids [ICS], and combinations thereof). Medications were not modified by SPIROMICS investigators. 2011 GOLD COPD categories A, B, C, and D were assigned. Alignment of inhaler regimen with first-/second-line GOLD recommendations was determined, stratifying into recommendation aligned or nonaligned. Recommendation-nonaligned participants were further stratified into overuse and underuse categories. Results: Of 1,721 participants with COPD, at baseline, 52% of regimens aligned with GOLD recommendations. Among participants with nonaligned regimens, 46% reported underuse, predominately owing to lack of long-acting inhalers in GOLD category D. Of the 54% reporting overuse, 95% were treated with nonindicated ICS-containing regimens. Among 431 participants with 4 years of follow-up data, recommendation alignment did not change over time. When we compared 2011 and 2017 recommendations, we found that 47% did not align with either set of recommendations, whereas 35% were in alignment with both recommendations. Conclusions: Among SPIROMICS participants with COPD, nearly 50% reported inhaler regimens that did not align with GOLD recommendations. Nonalignment was driven largely by overuse of ICS regimens in milder disease and lack of long-acting inhalers in severe disease.