Introduction African American and Latino children experience higher rates of traumatic injury and mortality, but the extent to which parents of different races and ethnicities disparately enact injury prevention behaviors has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between caregiver race/ethnicity and adherence to injury prevention recommendations. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of caregiver-reported baseline data from the Greenlight study, a cluster-randomized pediatric obesity prevention trial. Data were collected between 2010 and 2012 in four academic pediatric practices and analyzed in 2015. Non-adherence to injury prevention recommendations was based on five domains: car seat safety, sleeping safety, fire safety, hot water safety, and fall prevention. Results Among 864 caregiver−infant pairs (17.7% white, non-Hispanic; 49.9% Hispanic; 27.7% black, non-Hispanic; 4.7 % other, non-Hispanic), mean number of non-adherent injury prevention behaviors was 1.8 (SD=0.9). In adjusted regression, Hispanic caregivers had higher odds of non-adherence to car seat safety (AOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2, 3.8), and lower odds of non-adherence with fall prevention (AOR=0.4, 95% CI=0.3, 0.7) compared with whites. Black, non-Hispanic caregivers had higher odds of non-adherence to car seat safety (AOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3, 4.4) and sleeping safety (AOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.3, 3.2), but lower odds of fall prevention non-adherence (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.3, 0.8) compared with whites. Conclusions A high prevalence of non-adherence to recommended injury prevention behaviors is common across racial/ethnic categories for caregivers of infants among a diverse sample of families from low-SES backgrounds.