Thirty-six subjects participated in an 18-month follow-up of a secondary prevention program for back pain of recent onset. The follow-up assessment included most of the same instruments used in the original study. In addition, interviews were conducted to ascertain help and hindrance factors for maintaining improvements during the follow-up period. Results showed that subjects had significantly less pain, used fewer medications, and were more active at 18-month follow-up than at baseline. All subjects had returned to work, and one third had no pain-related work absences during the follow-up. A cost-benefit analysis indicated substantial economic savings when follow-up sick-listing data were compared with estimates based on an increasing trend for pain-related absenteeism found during the baseline period. Hindrance factors reported by subjects were related to personal time-management and workplace factors, especially psychosocial aspects of the work environment. It was concluded that the secondary prevention program was effective and that future maintenance programs should focus more on personal time-management and workplace factors.