A population genetic study of the polymorphism in the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of mitochondrial DNA control region was carried out for three ethnic populations of the Volga-Ural region, Bashkirs, Russians, and Komi-Permyaks. This analysis showed that most of the mtDNA HVSI haplotypes detected in the populations of Bashkirs, Russians and Komi-Permyaks contained the combinations of nucleotide substitutions detected earlier in European, and, to a lesser extent, Asian. These findings are consistent with historical, anthropological, and ethnographical data suggesting the presence of European and Mongoloid components of different geographical descent in the gene pool of the contemporary population of the Volga-Ural region. The data on the genetic structure and the phylogenetic relationships between populations of the Volga- Ural region based on modern molecular genetic methods of mitochondrial genome investigation would be a substantial addition to the already existing information for some other regions of Europe and Asia. These data would provide more complete examination of the development of interethnic diversity of mitochondrial gene pools of contemporary ethnic populations with the purpose of reconstructing the genetic demographic processes that accompanied peopling of the Middle Ural and Volga region.