Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States. An estimated 213,380 new cases (114,760 men and 98,620 women) of lung and bronchus cancer will be diagnosed in 2007, and 160,390 deaths (89,510 in men, 70,880 in women) are estimated to occur because of the disease. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80% to 85% of all lung cancer cases and includes 3 major types: (1) adenocarcinoma; (2) squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma; and (3) large-cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer seen in the United States and is also the most frequently occurring cell type in nonsmokers. Important updates to the 2008 guidelines on NSCLC include the addition of tables on drugs and dosing information on chemotherapy regimens for adjuvant therapy. © Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2008.