3D follow-up study of facial asymmetry after developmental dysplasia of the hip

Academic Article


  • Objectives: To evaluate the change in facial asymmetry among subjects treated for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) from childhood to adolescence. Setting and sample population: A total of 39 adolescents (26 females and 13 males), born and treated for DDH during 1997-2001, participated in the first examination in 2007 (T1; at the age of 8.2) and in the follow-up in 2016 (T2; at the age of 16.6). Material and methods: In this longitudinal study, three-dimensional (3D) images were taken using a 3DMD face system based on a stereophotogrammetric method. Facial asymmetry was determined as the average distance (mm) calculated between the original and superimposed mirrored face and the symmetry percentage (%) calculated as the face area where the distance between the original face and the mirrored surface does not exceed 0.5 mm. Results: Results showed increased asymmetry from T1 to T2. The average distance increased for whole face (from 0.51 mm to 0.59 mm, P =.001), upper face (from 0.41 mm to 0.49 mm, P =.005), mid-face (from 0.48 mm to 0.57, P =.002) and lower face (from 0.74 mm to 0.85 mm, P =.147). Facial symmetry percentage decreased for whole face from 61.23% to 55.38% (P =.011), for upper face from 69.27% to 62.24% (P =.005) and for mid-face from 62.29% to 55.63% (P =.007) and for lower face from 43.37% to 42.19% (P =.66). Conclusion: Facial asymmetry increases from childhood to adulthood in subjects treated for DDH. Orthodontic treatment does not eliminate this asymmetric facial growth.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Launonen A; Maikku M; Vuollo V; Pirttiniemi P; Valkama AM; Heikkinen T; Kau CH; Harila V
  • Start Page

  • 146
  • End Page

  • 152
  • Volume

  • 21
  • Issue

  • 3