Increasing opportunities to respond for students with internalizing behaviors: The utility of choral and mixed responding

Academic Article


  • Increasing students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) is a low-intensity strategy effective in increasing engagement. Building on the work of Haydon and colleagues, we compared two types of OTR, choral and mixed (70% choral, 30% individual), to examine the utility of these strategies in increasing active student responding and accuracy during mathematics for two elementary-age students with internalizing behaviors. Results indicated the general education teacher implemented both OTR strategies with high fidelity with limited university support. However, results of this alternating treatment design were unable to distinguish either choral or mixed responding as superior to the other. Results suggested one student showed high active student responding with less than 80% accuracy, whereas the other student was highly accurate but responded less than 75% of the time. In the discussion, we highlight reasons why the two OTR strategies had similar effects on student outcomes, consider implications of these findings, and provide direction for future inquiry.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Messenger M; Common EA; Lane KL; Oakes WP; Menzies HM; Cantwell ED; Ennis RP
  • Start Page

  • 170
  • End Page

  • 184
  • Volume

  • 42
  • Issue

  • 4