Background. Although pentoxifylline produces various beneficial effects in a preheparinized model of hemorrhagic shock, it was unknown whether this agent restores the depressed cardiac output (CO) and tissue perfusion in a nonheparinized model of trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation and, if so, whether it decreases the susceptibility to sepsis after hemorrhage. Methods. After laparotomy (i.e., induction of trauma), rats were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg until 40% of the maximum shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate. The animals were then resuscitated with Ringer's lactate, four times the volume of shed blood. Pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg body weight) or normal saline solution was infused intravenously more than 95 minutes during and after resuscitation. At 1.5 and 4 hours after resuscitation, CO, tissue perfusion, and plasma liver enzyme levels were determined. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture at 20 hours after hemorrhage, and the necrotic cecum was excised 10 hours thereafter. Results. CO and tissue perfusion in the liver, kidney, spleen, and small intestine decreased significantly after hemorrhage and resuscitation. Pentoxifylline treatment, however, restored the depressed CO and tissue perfusion. The elevated liver enzyme levels were also significantly reduced by pentoxifylline treatment. Moreover, pentoxifylline prevented the increased mortality of posthemorrhaged rats subjected to sepsis. Conclusions. Because pentoxifylline restored the depressed CO and tissue perfusion and decreased the susceptibility to sepsis, this agent appears to be a useful adjunct to crystalloid resuscitation after trauma and hemorrhage, even in the absence of blood resuscitation.