Background. A major impediment to the transplanting of porcine organs into humans is the susceptibility of porcine organs to acute vascular rejection, which can destroy a vascularized xenograft over a period of hours to days. Acute vascular rejection of porcine-to-primate xenografts is thought to be triggered by binding of xenoreactive antibodies to the graft. We tested whether antibodies, binding to Galα1-3Gal epitopes in porcine tissue, initiate this phenomenon. Methods and results. Specific depletion of anti-Galα1-3Gal antibodies from the blood of baboons, using extracorporeal perfusion of separated plasma through columns of Sepharose beads covalently linked to the antigenic trisaccharide. Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcAc, averted the development of acute vascular rejection in porcine organs transgenic for human decay-accelerating factor and CD59. More importantly, after immunodepletion was stopped and Galα1-3Gal antibodies were allowed to return, these same organs continued to function and remained pathologically normal and thus seemed to achieve a state of accommodation. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that anti-Galα1-3Gal antibodies cause acute vascular rejection and suggest that depletion of these antibodies leads to accommodation of the donor cardiac xenograft and could supply an important model for additional study.