Since the sequencing of the human genome was completed, progress toward understanding the genetic contributions to both rare and common disorders has accelerated dramatically. That understanding will lead to new approaches to diagnosis and management, which will be incorporated into day-to-day medical practice. Moreover, the mindset with regard to genetic contributions to health and disease has shifted from 1 gene at a time to genome wide. However, most practicing pediatricians, and even many still in training, are likely to be unfamiliar with the concepts of genetics and genomics and their applications in medical practice. This article addresses the issues of genetic and genomic literacy and competencies for pediatricians and other primary care providers, as they prepare to work with their patients in the emerging world of genomic medicine. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.