Historical perspectives of LESS and NOTES



  • The craft of surgery has undergone a remarkable transformation in a few short decades, evolving from traditional large incisions to smaller keyhole incisions characteristic of a minimally invasive approach. The drive toward minimally invasive techniques seeks to benefit patients by reducing pain and the physiologic responses to the stresses of open surgery. Smaller incisions limit disfigurement and improve upon cosmetic outcomes without compromising the exposure provided by open surgery with the advent of improved optical scopes and display mechanisms. Today, it is commonplace for patients to undergo major extirpative surgery through small incisions and enjoy a rapid recovery, with a brief hospitalization and quickened convalescence.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    International Standard Book Number (isbn) 10

  • 1848003595
  • International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13

  • 9781848003590
  • Pubmed Id

  • 27217942
  • Start Page

  • 3
  • End Page

  • 11