Reliability and validity of destination-specific barriers to walking and cycling for youth

Academic Article


  • Objective: To investigate the psychometric properties of a new measure of barriers youth encounter while walking to specific destinations and to validate the measure with self-reported walking to these destinations. Methods: In 2005 in Boston, Cincinnati and San Diego, parents of youth (n = 289, aged 5-18) and adolescents (n = 189, aged 12-18) completed surveys in a two-week test-retest study design. Seventeen items assessed participant agreement with the influence of different barriers to walking or cycling to three types of destinations: 1) parks, 2) shops and restaurants and 3) school. Participants also reported whether or not they walked or cycled to the destinations at least once a week. Results: Principal components analysis identified three barrier subscales labeled 'environmental', 'psychosocial/planning', and 'safety', which were consistent across the three destinations and two respondent groups. Internal consistency for the subscales was good (alphas > .70) and two-week test-retest reliability was moderately high (ICCs .56-.81) for both parents and adolescents for all destinations. Psychosocial and environmental barriers were higher in adolescents who did not walk (p < .003). Parents of younger children reported high environmental barriers. Conclusion: The three barrier subscales to active commuting to multiple destinations demonstrated good reliability and some initial evidence of validity. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Forman H; Kerr J; Norman GJ; Saelens BE; Durant NH; Harris SK; Sallis JF
  • Start Page

  • 311
  • End Page

  • 316
  • Volume

  • 46
  • Issue

  • 4