A task force evaluated an in vitro antibody-mediated chlamydial neutralization assay for its utility as a method to assess functional correlates of antibody responses to Chlamydia trachomatis. Two monoclonal antibodies that recognize different major outer membrane protein (MOMP) epitopes for a C. trachomatis serovar B strain exhibit good in vitro neutralizing activity, with a maximum of 90% neutralization, Calculations based on the 50% neutralization point indicated that 100% neutralization could theoretically be achieved when only 10% ofthe MOMP molecules bound antibody. Monoclonal antibodies that recognized either a heterologous MOMP or the genus-specific chlamydial lipopolysaccharide did not produce neutralizing activity. The standardized assay will be useful to establish if in vitro neutralizing antibody responses are predictive of protective immunity and will aid in defining chlamydial antigens and epitopes that may be attractive vaccine candidates. © 1993 by The University of Chicago.