Conclusion: This study shows that 17β-estradiol (E2) can amplify the long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the vestibular nuclei by high frequency stimulation (HFS), while potentiation induced by E2 alone, which is unrelated to synaptic high frequency activation, is reversed by HFS. Objective: Like HFS, exogenous E2 induces long-lasting enhancement of synaptic responses to vestibular afferent stimulation in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN), through NMDA receptor activation. The aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction of E2 and HFS in inducing LTP. Materials and methods: In rat brainstem slices, we analysed the modifications induced in the field potential evoked in the MVN by: 1) HFS delivered after induction of E2 effect and 2) E2 applied after induction of HFS-LTP. Results: HFS reversed the E2-induced potentiation in most cases, while E2 was able to increase the magnitude of potentiation induced by HFS.