Sialadenitis is among the most common conditions that affect the salivary glands. Inflammation of the salivary glands occurs as the end result of a variety of pathologic conditions, including infectious, autoimmune, and idiopathic causes. Clinically, inflammation of the salivary gland causes pain and localized swelling. The presentation may be acute or chronic, and can be recurrent. Because there is significant overlap of underlying disease mechanisms and clinical presentations, radiologic evaluation often plays a significant role in evaluation. This article is a brief review of sialadenitis, including disease mechanisms, causes, and the practical imaging of the salivary glands.