The Notch family is a highly conserved gene group that regulates cell-cell interaction, embryogenesis, and tissue commitment. This review article focuses on the third Notch family subtype, Notch3. Regulation via Notch3 signaling was first implicated in vasculogenesis. However, more recent findings suggest that Notch3 signaling may play an important role in oncogenesis, tumor maintenance, and resistance to chemotherapy. Its role is mainly oncogenic, although in some cancers it appears to be tumor suppressive. Despite the wealth of published literature, it remains relatively underexplored and requires further research to shed more light on its role in cancer development, determine its tissue-specific function, and elaborate novel treatment strategies. Herein we summarize the role of Notch3 in cancer, possible mechanisms of its action, and current cancer treatment strategies targeting Notch3 signaling. Implications for Practice: The Notch family is a highly conserved gene group that regulates cell-cell interaction, embryogenesis, and tissue commitment. This review summarizes the existing data on the third subtype of the Notch family, Notch3. The role of Notch3 in different types of cancers is discussed, as well as implications of its modification and new strategies to affect Notch3 signaling activity.