Endoscopic forehead lifting



  • The methods for forehead lifting can be classified as en-doscopic, open, or combined (biplanar) (Fig. 57.1). The procedure is not standardized and there is a wide varia-tion of the techniques (Fig. 57.1) [1-11]. Endoscopic brow lifting is one of the first clinical applications of the endoscope in plastic surgery. There are many advan-tages of endoscopic brow lifting, including avoidance of most of the problems associated with the coronal approach such as increased operative time, long scalp scar, scalp dysesthesia, and alopecia. It is a minimally invasive technique and is simple to perform in expe-rienced hands. It offers fast recovery and can easily be combined with other facial procedures and can be used as a safe secondary procedure. © Springer-Verlag 2008.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13

  • 9783540710967
  • Start Page

  • 437
  • End Page

  • 441