Background Due to insufficient evidence, extremely preterm infants (≤28 wk of gestation) rarely receive early progressive feeding (small increments of feeding volumes between 1 and 4 d after birth). We hypothesized that early progressive feeding increases the number of full enteral feeding days in the first month after birth. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of early progressive feeding in extremely preterm infants. Design In this single-center randomized trial, extremely preterm infants born between September 2016 and June 2017 were randomly assigned to receive either early progressive feeding without trophic feeding (early feeding group) or delayed progressive feeding after a 4-d course of trophic feeding (delayed feeding group). Treatment allocation occurred before or on feeding day 1. The primary outcome was the number of full enteral feeding days in the first month after birth. Secondary outcomes were death, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), culture-proven sepsis, growth percentiles at 36 wk postmenstrual age, use of parenteral nutrition, and need for central venous access. Results Sixty infants were included (median gestational age: 26 wk; mean ± SD birth weight: 832 ± 253 g). The primary outcome differed between groups (median difference favoring the early feeding group: +2 d; 95% CI: 0, 3 d; P = 0.02). Early progressive feeding reduced the use of parenteral nutrition (4 compared with 8 d; P ≤ 0.01) and the need for central venous access (9 compared with 13 d; P ≤ 0.01). The outcome of culture-proven sepsis (10% compared with 27%; P = 0.18), restricted growth (weight, length, and head circumference <10th percentile) at 36 wk postmenstrual age (25% compared with 50%; P = 0.07), and the composite outcome of NEC or death (27% compared with 20%; P = 0.74) did not differ between groups. Conclusion Early progressive feeding increases the number of full enteral feeding days in extremely preterm infants. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02915549.