Background. Most congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in highly seropositive populations occur in infants born to women with preexisting CMV seroimmunity. Although essential for developing prevention strategies, CMV shedding patterns in pregnant women with nonprimary infections have not been characterized. We investigated correlates of CMV shedding in a cohort of seropositive pregnant women. Methods. In a prospective study, saliva, urine, vaginal swabs, and blood were collected from 120 CMV-seropositive women in the first, second, and third trimesters and 1 month postpartum. Specimens were tested for CMV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed the contribution of the specific maternal characteristics to viral shedding. Results. CMV shedding was detected at least once in 42 (35%) women. Mothers living with or providing daily care to young children (3-6 years) were twice as likely to shed CMV at least once compared to women with less exposure to young children (58% vs 26%; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.56). Living in crowded households (=2 people per room) was associated with viral shedding (64% vs 31%; aRR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.26-3.13). Sexual activity as indicated by the number of sexual partners per year or condom use was not found to be a correlate of viral shedding. Conclusions. CMV shedding is relatively frequent in seropositivepregnant women. The association between virus shedding and caring for young children as well as crowded living conditions may provide opportunities for increased exposures that could lead to CMV reinfections in seropositive women.