Racial differences in abnormal ambulatory blood pressure monitoring measures: Results from the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study

Academic Article


  • Background Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. Methods We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. Results Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8 ± 3.8 years and 30.8 ± 3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001) after age-gender adjustment and 1.71 (SD 1.03) mm Hg higher after multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP (P = 0.10). After multivariable adjustment including mean clinic SBP, nighttime SBP was 4.83 (SD 1.11) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the African Americans were more likely than Whites to have nocturnal hypertension (prevalence ratio: 2.44, 95% CI: 0.99-6.05) and nondipping (prevalence ratio: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.39-4.48). The prevalence of masked hypertension among African Americans and Whites was 4.4% and 2.1%, respectively, (P = 0.49) and white coat hypertension was 3.3% and 3.9%, respectively (P = 0.99). Twenty-four hour BP variability on ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. Conclusions These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist.
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    Author List

  • Muntner P; Lewis CE; Diaz KM; Carson AP; Kim Y; Calhoun D; Yano Y; Viera AJ; Shimbo D
  • Start Page

  • 640
  • End Page

  • 648
  • Volume

  • 28
  • Issue

  • 5