OBJECTIVE: To evaluate over 108 weeks the effect of phentermine and topiramate extended release (PHEN/TPM ER) treatment on progression to type 2 diabetes and/or cardiometabolic disease in subjects with prediabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS) at baseline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subanalysis of a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of overweight/obese subjects (BMI ≥27 to ≤45 kg/m2) with two or more comorbidities. Subjects were randomized to placebo, PHEN 7.5 mg/TPM ER 46 mg (7.5/ 46), or PHEN 15 mg/TPM ER 92 mg (15/92) plus lifestyle modifications for 108 weeks. Percent weight loss in the intent-to-treat population using multiple imputation (ITT-MI), annualized incidence rate of progression to type 2 diabetes, and changes in glycemia, lipid parameters, blood pressure, and waist circumference were evaluated. RESULTS: At baseline, 475 subjects met the criteria for prediabetes and/or MetS. After 108 weeks, subjects with prediabetes and/or MetS in the placebo, 7.5/46, and 15/92 groups experienced mean percent weight loss of 2.5, 10.9, and 12.1%, respectively (ITT-MI; P < 0.0001 vs. placebo), associated with reductions of 70.5 and 78.7% in the annualized incidence rate of type 2 diabetes for those receiving 7.5/46 and 15/92, respectively (ITT, P< 0.05), versus placebo. The ability of PHEN/TPM ER to prevent diabetes was related to degree of weight lost and was accompanied by significant improvements in cardiometabolic parameters. PHEN/TPM ER was well tolerated by this subgroup over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: PHEN/TPM ER plus lifestyle modification produced significant weight loss and markedly reduced progression to type 2 diabetes in overweight/obese patients with prediabetes and/or MetS, accompanied by improvements in multiple cardiometabolic disease risk factors. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.