Given that calcium metabolism is influenced by genes and is tightly linked to energy-utilizing pathways, this study evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) with resting energy expenditure (REE). In 273 boys and girls, 7-12 years of age, cross-sectional REE was measured via indirect calorimetry, body composition by DXA, and dietary measures by 24-h recall. SNPs for VDR Cdx-2 (rs11568820) and CASR A986S (rs1801725) were genotyped using the Illumina Golden Gate assay. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association between SNPs and REE. African American carriers of the 'A' VDR Cdx2 allele had increased levels of REE in the overall sample, and this association was apparent among participants with an adiposity level of <25 % and 30 % body fat in males and females, respectively. For CASR, an association between carriers of the 'A' allele and REE was observed only in those in the upper median of calcium intake. VDR and CASR variants are associated with REE in children and are influenced by levels of calcium intake and adiposity. Our results bring awareness to mechanisms underlying the regulation of REE and biological and dietary influential factors. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan.