An evaluation of the evidence base for performance feedback to improve teacher praise using CEC’s quality indicators

Academic Article


  • Despite a rich body of empirical evidence that supports the use of teacher praise to improve student outcomes, it continues to be underused in practice. One method of ameliorating this problem is the use of performance feedback. Although some studies have indicated that the use of performance feedback is an effective approach for increasing teachers’ use of praise, the quality of the literature base has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the current literature base related to the use of performance feedback to increase teachers’ use of praise to determine whether it could be classified as an evidence-based practice. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, and each study was evaluated using the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education (i.e., quality indicators). Fourteen single-case studies were reviewed for methodological rigor across 21 quality indicators. Results indicated that performance feedback is a promising practice to increase teachers’ use of praise; however, not enough studies met quality standards to classify the practice as evidence-based. Future research should focus on conducting studies that meet the standards set forth by the CEC to build empirical support for the use of performance feedback as a method for increasing teachers’ use of praise.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Sweigart CA; Collins LW; Evanovich LL; Cook SC
  • Start Page

  • 419
  • End Page

  • 444
  • Volume

  • 39
  • Issue

  • 4