The sub-nanometer scale provided by small angle neutron and X-ray scattering is of special importance to pharmaceutical and biomedical investigators. As drug delivery devices become more functionalized and continue decreasing in size, the ability to elucidate details on size scales smaller than those available from optical techniques becomes extremely pertinent. Information gathered from small angle scattering therefore aids the endeavor of optimizing pharmaceutical efficacy at its most fundamental level. This chapter will provide some relevant examples of drug carrier technology and how small angle scattering (SAS) can be used to solve their mysteries. An emphasis on common first-step data treatments is provided which should help clarify the contents of scattering data to new researchers. Specific examples of pharmaceutically relevant research on novel systems and the role SAS plays in these studies will be discussed. This chapter provides an overview of the current applications of SAS in drug research and some practical considerations for selecting scattering techniques.