Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. As the focus of the international community has shifted from onchocerciasis control to elimination, replacement of human landing collections has become a priority. The Esperanza window trap (EWT) has shown promise as an alternative method for collection of Simulium damnosum s.l., the primary vector of O. volvulus in Africa. Here, we report the results of a community-based trial of the EWT in northern Uganda. Traps operated by residents were compared with human landing collections in two communities over 5 months. Three traps, when operated by a single village resident, collected over four times as many S. damnosum as did the twomen collection team. No significant differences were noted among the bait formulations. The results suggest that EWTs may be effectively operated by community residents and that the trap represents a viable alternative to human landing collections for entomological surveillance of O. volvulus transmission.