Dynamic regulation of T follicular regulatory cell responses by interleukin 2 during influenza infection

Academic Article


  • Interleukin 2 (IL-2) promotes Foxp3 + regulatory T (T reg) cell responses, but inhibits T follicular helper (T FH) cell development. However, it is not clear how IL-2 affects T follicular regulatory (T FR) cells, a cell type with properties of both T reg and T FH cells. Using an influenza infection model, we found that high IL-2 concentrations at the peak of the infection prevented T FR cell development by a Blimp-1-dependent mechanism. However, once the immune response resolved, some T reg cells downregulated CD25, upregulated Bcl-6 and differentiated into T FR cells, which then migrated into the B cell follicles to prevent the expansion of self-reactive B cell clones. Thus, unlike its effects on conventional T reg cells, IL-2 inhibits T FR cell responses.
  • Published In

  • Nature Immunology  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Botta D; Fuller MJ; Marquez-Lago TT; Bachus H; Bradley JE; Weinmann AS; Zajac AJ; Randall TD; Lund FE; León B
  • Start Page

  • 1249
  • End Page

  • 1260
  • Volume

  • 18
  • Issue

  • 11