Little is known about gender differences in the health of individuals in the former Eastern Europe. Determinants of health and health-related lifestyles may operate differently there than in the West. Data from the 1994 Polish General Social Survey (PGSS) are used to estimate structural and psychosocial effects on self-reported health, risk behaviors, and social participation for women and men. Employment improves the chance of better health for men, whereas marital happiness increases the probability of better health for women; smoking declines with education among men but not among women; and excessive drinking increases for unhappily married men. Religiosity protects the health of both women and men. This research sheds light on the possible sources of gender differences in health in Poland.