Objective Little is known about how long-term cancer survivors adapt in the realm of work and finances, and whether there are differences in these adaptations based on overall health status. We hypothesize that survivors with better health-related quality of life (HQL) have better work and financial outcomes. Study design Cross-sectional study with 200 adult recipients of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) 3–26 years after transplant using self-administered questionnaires and medical records extraction. Main outcome measures Questionnaires assessed work status, financial satisfaction, and perceived improvements in financial status since transplant. Results Nearly half the survivors were employed (37.2% full-time, 8.7% part-time); 37.2% had retired. Higher scores on the functional HQL were linked to a lower relative risk of having retired (RRR 0.85, CI 0.75–0.98) and of being neither in the workforce nor retired (RRR 0.84, CI 0.72–0.99) compared with working full-time. Higher functional HQL also related to higher financial satisfaction (b 0.06, CI 0.01–0.10) and increased odds of perceived improvements in one's financial situation since transplant (OR 1.15, CI 1.04–1.17). Patients receiving HCT at age ≥60 were more likely than counterparts receiving HCT at age 18–39 to work part-time (RRR 18.24, 95% CI 1.19–280.24) and to have retired (Model 1 RRR 579.14, 95% CI 49.53–6771.54) than to be working full-time. Conclusions Survivors with poorer HQL may be at risk for overall poorer work and financial adaptation. Interventions targeting this group and specifically focusing on re-integration into the world of paid work should be considered.