Improved medical therapies have increased survivorship rates for children with posterior fossa tumors; resultantly, morbidities associated with survivorship, such as executive function deficits, have become increasingly important to identify and address. Executive dysfunction can impact academic achievement as well as functional outcomes. We summarize studies describing executive functioning deficits in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors who received cranial radiation therapy and intervention studies that have targeted executive functioning deficits. Previous theoretical models describing the etiology of these deficits are reviewed, and a new, more comprehensive model is proposed. Future research should move toward incorporating neuroimaging, longitudinal designs, and multiple informants. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.