Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with high prevalence of associated autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our primary objectives were to determine early predictors of autism risk to identify children with TSC in most need of early interventions. The Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) was evaluated as a measure of ASD-associated behaviors in infants with TSC at age 12 months and its ability to predict ASD at 24 months. Methods Children ages 0 to 36 months with TSC were enrolled in the TSC Autism Center of Excellence Research Network (TACERN), a multicenter, prospective observational study to identify biomarkers of ASD. The AOSI was administered at age 12 months and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) at 24 months. Developmental functioning was assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Children were classified as ASD or non-ASD according to the ADOS-2. Results Analysis included 79 children who had been administered the AOSI at 12 months and ADOS-2 and ADI-R at 24 months. The ASD group had a mean AOSI total score at 12 months significantly higher than the non-ASD group (11.8 ± 7.4 vs 6.3 ± 4.7; P < 0.001). An AOSI total score cutoff of 13 provided a specificity of 0.89 to detect ASD with the ADOS-2. AOSI total score at 12 months was similarly associated with exceeding cutoff scores on the ADI-R. Conclusions The AOSI is a useful clinical tool in determining which infants with TSC are at increased risk for developing ASD.