This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiologic mechanism, diagnosis, and management of health care-associated pneumonia with the purpose of ensuring that this infectious disease is recognized by clinicians early on and treated appropriately upon patient presentation. Health care-associated pneumonia is a unique infectious process and thus is oftentimes unrealized in the clinical setting. It differs from community-acquired pneumonia with respect to pathogens, prognosis, and subsequent outcomes; therefore, it is categorized most similarly to hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Health care-associated pneumonia patients are at higher risk of multidrug-resistant pathogens, including resistant gram-negative organisms especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, because most are often elderly, have a severe disability, or are immunocompromised. Owing to the pathogenicity of the organisms most commonly associated with health care-associated pneumonia, it is paramount that initial anti-infective therapy is adequate to cover the virulent bacterial organisms most frequently encountered. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.