Biofeedback treatment of Raynaud's disease

Academic Article


  • The primary symptom in Raynaud's disease and Raynaud's phenomenon is vasospastic attacks of the extremities. The most common portions of the body affected are the fingers and toes, although the tips of the nose, ears, and other areas may also be involved. Stimuli for the attacks are cold, physical stress, emotional stress, or all of these. Clinically, Raynaud's symptomatology can be classified by history and symptoms into mild, moderate, or severe categories. Behavioral treatment with thermal biofeedback provides an efficient cost-effective treatment with little or no negative side effects. Medication and surgery are less effective and have numerous and troublesome side effects. With experienced clinicians, a good biofeedback protocol, and properly selected Raynaud's disease patients, 80-90% can have a good-to-excellent treatment result.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Sedlacek K; Taub E
  • Start Page

  • 548
  • End Page

  • 553
  • Volume

  • 27
  • Issue

  • 6