Objective: To evaluate whether Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) may benefit chronic upper extremity hemiparesis in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Five patients with progressive MS, who had chronic upper extremity hemiparesis and evidence for learned non-use of the paretic limb in the life situation, underwent 30 hours of repetitive task training and shaping for the paretic limb over 2-10 consecutive weeks, along with physical restraint of the less-affected arm and a "transfer package" of behavioral techniques to reinforce treatment adherence. Results: The patients showed significantly improved spontaneous, real-world limb use at post-treatment and 4 weeks post-treatment, along with improved fatigue ratings and maximal movement ability displayed in a laboratory motor test. Conclusions: The findings suggest for the first time that slowly progressive MS may benefit from CI therapy. Further studies are needed to determine the retention of treatment responses. © SAGE Publications 2008.