Objective: Women are the primary victims of self-immolation in Iran; between 70-88% of self-immolation patients are women. The aim of this study is to investigate familial risk factors for self-immolation patients. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns admitted to the regional Burn Centre (Imam Khomeini hospital in Kermanshah province, Iran) were compared with 30 controls selected from the community and matched by sex, age, and living area. All cases and controls were reviewed for familial variables, including history of suicide in the family, parental divorce, current conflict with parents, parental death, history of mental disorders in parents, history of addiction in parents, parents' marital conflict, marital conflict with spouse, conflict with other members of the family, addictive disorder in spouse, and socioeconomic level of family. Results: Using chi-square test of association, two variables were significantly associated with self-immolation. Marital conflict with spouse (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.84-33.09) and conflict with other members of the family (OR 10.00, 95% CI 2.94-34.00) were associated with increased risk of self-immolation. The associations of other variables in both case and control groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest marital conflict with the spouse and conflict with other members of the family are risk factors for self-immolation. Screening, identification, and education of at-risk individuals on problem solving and other aspects of coping skills, as well as interpersonal relationships, could be appropriate preventive actions and strategies to reduce self-immolation in Iran. © 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.