This study examined the role of protein phosphatase type-1 (PP1), type-2A (PP2A), and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in altered mesenteric lymph node (MLN) T cell function in a two-hit model of alcohol (EtOH) intoxication and burn injury. Male rats (250 g) were gavaged with EtOH to achieve a blood EtOH level of ∼100 mg/dL prior to burn or sham injury (25% total body surface area). MLN T cells harvested 24 h after injury show a significant decrease in p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 phosphorylation in T cells from rats receiving a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury compared with rats receiving EtOH intoxication or burn injury alone. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of PP1/PP2A [calyculin A (CA) and okadaic acid (OA)] prevented the suppression in T cells p38 and ERK-1/2 activation. In addition, the suppression in interleukin-2 and interferon-γ production was attenuated in T cells cultured in the presence of CA and OA. MKP-1 inhibitor triptolide did not prevent the suppression in T cells p38/ERK-1/2 and cytokine production. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in PP1α phosphorylation (Thr320) and an increase in PP2A (Tyr307) phosphorylation in T cells following a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury. As phosphorylation of PP1 at Thr320 and PP2A at Tyr307 led to an inhibition of their enzymatic activities, the decrease in the PP1α phosphorylation correlates with an increase in its enzyme activity. Thus, these results suggest that activation of PP1 is likely to play a predominant role in T cell suppression following a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.