Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the primary pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Reports of the spread of epidemic or transmissible strains of P. aeruginosa within and across CF centers raised the possibility of clonal spread among siblings with CF. This work reports the genotypic relatedness of P. aeruginosa in CF patients with the CFTR I1234V mutation, and to determine whether the genotypes are identical among CF siblings and among different families with the same CFTR mutation. Sixty-six P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from sputa/deep-pharyngeal swabs from 27 CF patients belonging to 17 families. Genotypic relatedness was assessed using amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Twenty-three distinct genotypes of P. aeruginosa were identified. Eleven families each had one distinct genotype. In the other 6 families more than one genotype was observed; 3 families each showed two genotypes, 2 families each had three genotypes and 1 family had four genotypes of P. aeruginosa. In several cases, siblings with CF from the same family harbored the same strain of P. aeruginosa, which were different from the genotypes in other families. On the other hand, there was an overlap in P. aeruginosa between closely related families. Some patients show persistent colonization with the same genotype of P. aeruginosa over the longitudinal period. The presence of the same genotypes in siblings of the same family and closely related families suggests cross-transmission of P. aeruginosa or acquisition from common environmental exposure. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.