The purpose of this study was to examine changes in posttrauma symptoms among 118 homeless cocaine-dependent adults participating in a randomly controlled trial studying effective treatments for dually diagnosed homeless individuals. Among those with trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms, the group receiving more behaviorally intensive, contingency management treatment had significantly greater reductions in PTSD symptomatology than did the group receiving less-intensive treatment. Regression analyses revealed that greater positive distraction coping and lower negative avoidance coping at baseline, in addition to changes in avoidance coping over the 6-month study period, were significantly related to greater symptom and severity reductions. The study provides some initial evidence of important treatment outcomes other than abstinence in addiction-related interventions. © 2007 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.