Renal angiomyolipomas are found in more than half of the patients with tuberous sclerosis. We report on 3 patients with tuberous sclerosis and pathologically aggressive renal angiomyolipoma with retroperitoneal lymph node involvement and/or renal cell carcinoma. All patients have had a benign course. The literature is reviewed and supports the benign nature of this seemingly aggressive disorder. An approach to the evaluation and treatment of a child with tuberous sclerosis and renal angiomyolipoma is presented.