Purpose To explore a clinically observed association between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Design A retrospective case-control study. Participants and controls Sixty-nine consecutive patients diagnosed with CSC were compared with a control group of 55 non-CSC patients. Methods The records of 69 patients with CSC were retrospectively reviewed and compared with the records of 55 controls. All patients and controls were examined in a referral setting. Results Patients with CSC were significantly more likely to have GERD compared with controls (odds ratio 6.05; 95% confidence interval 2.14-17.11; P = .0003). Central serous chorioretinopathy patients were also more likely than controls to have used oral corticosteroid medications (odds ratio 16.30; 95% confidence interval 2.09-127.33; P = .0006) and antacid/antireflux medications (odds ratio 15.00; 95% confidence interval 1.91-117.58; P = .001). Conclusions This study identifies an association between CSC and GERD. There are biochemical factors common to both diseases that support this association, giving further insight into the pathogenesis of CSC. © 2004 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.