Purpose Renal function following percutaneous nephrolithotomy has long been a concern to urologists, especially in the setting of multi-tract access. We determined whether the risk of renal injury after multi-tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy was greater than after a single access approach. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 307 consecutive patients treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy from 2011 to 2012 at Wake Forest Health. Perioperative 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine nuclear renogram parameters along with serum creatinine values were assessed within 1 year of the procedure. Patients were stratified by single access vs multi-access (2 or more). Results We identified 110 cases in which renography was done before and after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A total of 74 patients (67.3%) underwent single access percutaneous nephrolithotomy while 36 (32.7%) underwent multi-access percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Serum creatinine did not significantly differ between the 2 cohorts postoperatively (p = 0.09). There was a significant 2.28% decrease in renal function based on mercaptoacetyltriglycine nuclear renogram results after percutaneous nephrolithotomy of the affected kidney in patients with multiple accesses (p <0.01). This relationship was not observed when patients were stratified by multiple comorbidities associated with nephrolithiasis. Conclusions Multi-access percutaneous nephrolithotomy is associated with a small reduction in the function of the targeted kidney compared to a single access approach.