Mycoplasma hominis is a heterogeneous species with DNA-DNA hybridization values ranging from 51 to 100%. We report here the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of a strain (183) that greatly differs from the type strain (PG21) of this species. Comparison of 16S rDNA sequences from these two strains showed limited differences, indicating that the two strains belong to the same rRNA species complex. Using these nucleotide sequence data, we established a rapid method for the detection of M. hominis by using polymerase chain reaction. This method was shown to be sensitive and specific when tested with reference strains and clinical isolates.