The adsorption of mycoplasma virus P1, a virus which infects some strains of Mycoplasma pulmonis, to host cells was examined. Mutants of M. pulmonis to which P1 virus did not adsorb were isolated. Proteins from the mutants and from wild-type cells were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the only observed difference was in the surface antigen V-1. The electrophoretic properties of V-1 also correlated with the host range of the virus. These data strongly suggest that the V-1 antigen affects adsorption of P1 virus to host cells.