Objective: To examine the profile of scores on a measure of orientation in a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during acute rehabilitation as a means of (a) assessing the extent of neural compromise, (b) assessing recovery of functioning, and (c) determining the relative difficulty of different indicators of orientation. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: Acute rehabilitation hospital. Participants: Forty-three patients with severe TBI interviewed daily throughout rehabilitation. Measures: The Orientation Log (O-Log) is a 10-item measure of orientation to place, time, and situation. Items are scored 0-3 on the basis of whether they are recalled spontaneously (3), with cueing (2), via recognition (1), or not at all (0). Results: O-Log score was correlated with severity of TBI. Return of orientation followed a consistent trajectory, with initial gains preceding a plateau effect. Patients had relatively more difficulty orienting to hospital name and date than to year, month, and city. Conclusions: The O-Log is sensitive to the severity of TBI. Progress in orientation, on average, occurs at a similar rate across patients, including those who present as severely disoriented, although those with severe disorientation may not achieve orientation by rehabilitation discharge.