Uric acid, the end product of purine metabolism, is excreted predominantly by the proximal tubules. Abnormal serum levels of uric acid are due to alterations in production or excretion. Fractional excretion of uric acid is helpful in determining the underlying etiology of hypouricemia or hyperuricemia in children. Abnormalities in the molecular mechanisms that control renal uric acid tubular transport are implicated in various disorders associated with abnormal uric acid levels. Gout is rare in children; yet its presence necessitates evaluation for enzymatic defects in purine metabolism. Well-known effects of uric acid on the kidney include nephrolithiasis and acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of tumor lysis. However, recent data suggest that uric acid may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of AKI in general, as well as of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. Hence, uric acid may not only be a marker but also a potential therapeutic target in kidney disease. Nonetheless, because of confounders, more studies are needed to clarify the association between uric acid and multifactorial disorders of the kidney. © 2013 IPNA.