Immunocytochemical studies of postmortem human tissue have shown that the neurons at risk for degeneration in Alzheimer's are marked by the ectopic expression of several cell cycle components. The current work investigates the roles that β-amyloid activated microglia might play in leading neurons to re-express cell cycle components. Stable cultures of E16.5 mouse cortical neurons were exposed to β-amyloid alone, microglial cells alone, or microglial cells activated by β-amyloid. Increased cell death was found in response to each of these treatments, however, only the amyloid activated microglial treatment increased the number of neurons that were positive for cell cycle markers such as PCNA or cyclin D and incorporation of BrdU. Double labeling with BrdU and TUNEL techniques verified that the 'dividing' neurons were dying, most likely through an apoptotic mechanism. The identity of the soluble factor(s) elaborated by the microglia remains unknown, but FGF2, a suspected neuronal mitogen, was ruled out. These results further support a model in which microglial activation by β-amyloid is a key event in the progression in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.