Four Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE1 to NHE4) have been detected in the kidney. Renal NHE2 expression sites have not been fully established. We have raised rabbit antisera against an oligopeptide related to the amino acids 652 to 661 of rat NHE2. Western blot analysis of plasma membrane fractions isolated from rat renal cortex showed that affinity-purified anti-NHE2 antibody detected an 85-kDa protein in apical but not in basolateral membranes. The labeling of this 85-kDa protein was specifically blocked by preincubation of the antibody with its monomeric peptide, indicating specific recognition. Indirect immunolabeling was performed on sections of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat kidney embedded in paraffin. Strong staining was seen in the apical membrane of cortical thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and connecting tubules. Much weaker apical staining was found in medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle. In the inner medulla, some thin limbs were intensively labeled by the anti-NHE2 antibody. No staining could be detected in any segments of the proximal tubule and collecting duct.