Introduction. Prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men, and with routine prostrate specific antigen (PSA) screening, is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. To date, reported experiences with transplantation in men with a history of PCA are limited to only a few patients. This study presents the first series of transplant recipients with a history of PCA. Methods. Analysis of transplant recipients with a history of pretransplant PCA was performed on the Israel Penn International Transplant Tumor Registry database. PCA were staged using American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria. Statistics analysis was performed by chi-square and Student t tests. Results. Ninety patients with preexisting PCA were identified: 77 renal, 10 heart, and three liver transplant recipients. Mean age at PCA diagnosis was 61.3 ± 6.3 years. Median interval between diagnosis and transplantation was 19.3 months, and median follow-up after transplantation was 20.5 months. Median time to PCA recurrence was 10.6 months after transplantation and median survival time with recurrent PCA was 49.2 months after transplant. Patient mortality was 28.8%, and PCA-related death rate was 7.8%. PCA recurrence rate was 17.7%. Tumor recurrence rates in stage I and II disease (14 and 16%) were lower than in stage III disease (36%). Conclusions. In conclusion, death rate to disease other than PCA is three times that due to PCA. PCA recurrence rates are relatively low in patients who initially presented with stage I and II disease, and are half that of patients with stage III disease. © 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.