Background and Objective: Cardiac disease is a common cause of death in renal transplant recipients. This study retrospectively analyzes the results of myocardial revascularization procedures in these patients and makes recommendations for managing coronary atherosclerosis in patients with renal disease who already have a transplanted kidney or who may receive a kidney transplant. Methods: Patients who had myocardial revascularization (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG] or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) and renal transplantation at the authors' institution between 1968 and 1994 were analyzed. Patient, procedural, and institutional variables were used for actuarial analyses of survival, as well as multivariate analyses of risk factors for death. Results: Eighty-three of 2989 renal transplant patients required myocardial revascularization either before or after their transplant, and diabetes mellitus was the cause of renal failure in 42% of these patients. Standard coronary angiography, CABG, and PTCA techniques were used without periprocedural renal allograft loss. Actuarial patient survival was 89%, 77%, and 65% at 1, 3, and 5 years after the last procedure (transplantation or revascularization). Cardiac disease was the most common mode of death. Early-phase risk factors for death by multivariate analysis included hypertension and revascularization before 1989. Late-phase risk factors for death included diabetes mellitus, higher number of pre-CABG myocardial infarctions, renal transplantation before 1984, older age, and unstable angina before CABG. Conclusions: Myocardial revascularization can be performed with acceptable short- and long-term results in patients with renal disease who have renal transplantation either before or after the revascularization procedure. Diabetes mellitus was a highly prevalent condition among these patients, and cardiac disease was their most common mode of death. PTCA and CABG, as performed at this institution, posed little risk for renal allograft loss. Modification of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis, rigorous cardiac evaluation of patients at risk for coronary artery disease before renal transplantation, and aggressive use of revascularization procedures to decrease the incidence of myocardial infarction are proposed as ways to prolong the survival of renal transplant patients with ischemic heart disease.