Study design:Cross-sectional.Objective:To preliminarily evaluate the validity of an interview-based spinal cord injury (SCI) neuropathic pain screening instrument.Setting:Six university-based SCI centers in the United States.Methods:Clinician diagnoses of neuropathic pain (NP) and non-neuropathic pain subtypes were collected independently of descriptions of the pain characteristics provided by the persons with SCI by using the Spinal Cord Injury Pain Instrument (SCIPI); SCIPI information and physician diagnoses for 82 pain sites of which they were most confident were subsequently compared.Results:Four of the SCIPI items correlated significantly with the NP subtype as determined by the clinician. The best cutoff score for identifying NP was an endorsement of two or more of these four items. Using this cutoff, sensitivity of the SCIPI was 78%, specificity was 73% and overall diagnostic accuracy was 76%.Conclusion:In this preliminary study, the SCIPI, which can be administered by a nonclinician, appears to have good sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy in a SCI population; it may have a role as a screening tool for NP after SCI. Further study is needed. © 2014 International Spinal Cord Society. All rights reserved.