While there may be many reasons for obtaining neuropsychological assessment after traumatic brain injury (TBI), prediction of real world functioning is generally a key goal. The present paper reviews 23 studies concerning the relationship between neuropsychological test results and employment outcome after TBI. The review was conducted in accordance with guidelines developed by the Committee on Empirically Supported Practice of Division 40 (Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association. Results of the review support a Category A (strongly supported) recommendation for the use of early neuropsychological assessment to predict late employment outcome. Studies of late neuropsychological assessment and subsequent employment outcome and studies of concurrent neuropsychological assessment and employment outcome were inconclusive regarding either support or contraindication for neuropsychological assessment to predict employment outcome. Almost all studies conducted at these late or concurrent time points had significant limitations with regard to study type or adequacy of methodology. However, there is no conceptual basis for believing that neuropsychological findings obtained closer in time to assessment of employment outcome should be less predictive of this outcome than neuropsychological findings obtained at an earlier time.